Respiration – glycolysis

  • outline the need for energy in living organisms, as illustrated by anabolic reactions, such as DNA replication and protein synthesis, active transport, movement and the maintenance of body temperature
  • describe the features of ATP that make it suitable as the universal energy currency
  • list the four stages in aerobic respiration (glycolysis, link reaction, Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation)
  • state where each of the phases of respiration (glycolysis, link reaction, Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation) occurs in eukaryotic cells
  • explain that ATP is synthesised in substrate-linked reactions in glycolysis and in the Krebs cycle
  • outline glycolysis as phosphorylation of glucose and the subsequent splitting of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (6C) into two triose phosphate molecules, which are then further oxidised to pyruvate with a small yield of ATP and reduced NAD