• explain what is meant by homologous pairs of chromosomes
  • explain the meanings of the terms haploid and diploid and the need for a reduction division (meiosis) prior to fertilisation in sexual reproduction
  • outline the role of meiosis in gametogenesis in humans and in the formation of pollen grains and embryo sacs in flowering plants
  • describe, with the aid of photomicrographs and diagrams, the behaviour of chromosomes in plant and animal cells during meiosis, and the associated behaviour of the nuclear envelope, cell surface membrane and the spindle (names of the main stages are expected)
  • explain how crossing over and random assortment of homologous chromosomes during meiosis and random fusion of gametes at fertilisation lead to genetic variation including the expression of rare, recessive alleles