Lungs

  • describe the gross structure of the human gas exchange system
  • label diagrams of the structure of the walls of the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli indicating the distribution of cartilage, ciliated epithelium, goblet cells, smooth muscle, squamous epithelium and blood vessels
  • describe the functions of cartilage, cilia, goblet cells, mucous glands, smooth muscle and elastic fibres and recognise these cells and tissues in prepared slides, photomicrographs and electron micrographs of the gas exchange system
  • describe and explain the mechanism of breathing to include the role of the diaphragm and the antagonistic interaction between the external and intercostal muscles in bringing about pressure changes in the thoracic cavity
  • describe and explain the adaptations of gas exchange surfaces, shown by the essential features of the alveolar epithelium as a surface over which gas exchange takes place
  • describe the process of gas exchange between air in the alveoli and the blood
  • interpret information relating to the effects of lung disease on gas exchange and/or ventilation
  • interpret data relating to the effects of pollution and smoking on the incidence of lung disease
  • analyse and interpret data associated with specifc risk factors and the incidence of lung disease
  • evaluate the way in which experimental data led to statutory restrictions on the sources of risk factors
  • recognise correlations and causal relationships