Introduction, protoctista & insects

  • calculate surface areas and volumes of simple shapes (e.g. cubes) to illustrate the principle that surface area to volume ratios decrease with increasing size
  • describe and explain the adaptations of gas exchange surfaces, shown by gas exchange:
    • across the body surface of a single-celled organism
    • in the tracheal system of an insect (tracheae, tracheoles and spiracles)
  • describe and explain the structural and functional compromises between the opposing needs for effcient gas exchange and the limitation of water loss shown by terrestrial insects