Immunology

  • outline the process of cell signalling involving the release of chemicals that combine with cell surface receptors on target cells, leading to specific responses
  • state that phagocytes (macrophages and neutrophils) have their origin in bone marrow and describe their mode of action
  • describe the modes of action of B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes
  • describe and explain the significance of the increase in white blood cell count in humans with infectious diseases and leukaemias
  • explain the meaning of the term immune response, making reference to the terms antigen, self and non-self
  • explain the role of memory cells in long-term immunity
  • explain, with reference to myasthenia gravis, that the immune system sometimes fails to distinguish between self and nonself
  • relate the molecular structure of antibodies to their functions