Homeostasis – Kidney & Osmoregulation

  • explain the effect on cells of osmotic changes in body fuids
  • describe and be able to label a diagram of the human excretory system to show kidneys, renal arteries, renal veins, aorta, vena cava, ureters, bladder, urethra and be able to indicate the direction of blood flow in the blood vessels associated with the kidney
  • describe the function of the kidneys in maintaining the water balance of the body and remove waste products from the blood;
  • explain why this is necessary (to include that the waste, a solution containing urea and excess salts called urine, passes from the kidneys in the ureters to the bladder where it is stored before being passed out of the body
  • recall that the presence of blood or cells in the urine indicates disease in the kidney
  • label a diagram of a section through a kidney to include: renal artery, renal vein, cortex, medulla, pelvis, ureter
  • label a diagram of a nephron and its associated blood supply to show the glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, tubule, collecting duct, capillary network, arteriole to and from capillary knot
  • explain the process of filtration under pressure and that selective re-absorption of glucose, some salts, and much of the water takes place in the tubule
  • recall that the kidneys regulate the water content of the blood by producing dilute urine if there is too much water in the blood or concentrated urine if there is a shortage of water in the blood.
  • recall that ADH increases the permeability of the collecting duct walls to water. More ADH is produced if there is a shortage of water in the blood, more water is reabsorbed and so a more concentrated urine is produced

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