Heart & cardiac cycle

  • describe the external and internal structure of the mammalian heart
  • explain the differences in the thickness of the walls of the different chambers in terms of their functions with reference to resistance to flow
  • describe the cardiac cycle (including blood pressure changes during systole and diastole)
  • explain how heart action is initiated and controlled (reference should be made to the sinoatrial node, the atrioventricular node and the Purkyne tissue)
  • analyse and interpret data relating to pressure and volume changes during the cardiac cycle