Cardiovascular disease

  • recall that in coronary heart disease layers of fatty material build up inside the coronary arteries, narrowing them and reducing the flow of blood through them, resulting in a lack of oxygen for the heart muscle (to include the possibility of eventual myocardial infarction)
  • recall that heart valves may become faulty, preventing the valve from opening fully or resulting in valves might developing leaks (to include an understanding that faulty heart valves can be replaced using biological or mechanical valves)
  • recall that in the case of heart failure a donor heart, or heart and lungs can be transplanted (to include that artificial hearts are occasionally used to keep patients alive whilst waiting for a heart transplant, or to allow the heart to rest as an aid to recovery)
  • evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of treating cardiovascular diseases by drugs, mechanical devices or transplant