Carbohydrates

  • describe the ring forms of α-glucose and β-glucose, giving their structural formulae
  • define the terms monomer, polymer, macromolecule, monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide
  • describe the formation of a glycosidic bond by condensation, with reference both to polysaccharides and to disaccharides, including sucrose
  • recall that:
    • maltose is a disaccharide formed by condensation of two glucose molecules
    • sucrose is a disaccharide formed by condensation of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule
    • lactose is a disaccharide formed by condensation of a glucose molecule and a galactose molecule
    • glycogen and starch are formed by the condensation of α-glucose.
    • cellulose is formed by the condensation of β-glucose
  • recall the basic structure and functions of glycogen, starch and cellulose.
  • explain the relationship of structure to function of glycogen, starch and cellulose in animal cells and plant cells
  • describe the breakage of glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides and disaccharides by hydrolysis, with reference to the non-reducing sugar test
  • describe the molecular structure of polysaccharides including starch (amylose and amylopectin), glycogen and cellulose and relate these structures to their functions in living organisms
  • describe the method for biochemical tests using Benedict’s solution for reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars and iodine/potassium iodide for starch